August 31, 2010


Have you ever noticed that most rewards are "stuff"?  Little junky toys from the Dollar Store, a certificate that will get crumpled, some knick-knack you have to find a place for and then dust for eternity.  Or food - cookies, candy, gum, doughnuts.  "You did a good job, now eat something really bad for you."

As I've worked on de-cluttering my home (and gotten rid of 75% of their toys) I'm less and less inclined to bring junk back into the house.  And we're working really hard on eating more wholesome foods so many "treats" are out.

Top this with the fact that we're really buckling down on learning chores, skills and responsibilities and my children can be heard to say, "What will I get?  What will my reward be?"  Oh, what an awful mother I am to have trained them thus!

I've been trying to find ways to motivate and encourage these new behaviors, without undermining the cleanliness of the home and health of the family.

Thus far we've used the Bean Jar and warm "thank yous."  We try to take the time to inspect the job done and provide lots of compliments and meaningful praise (not just "good job").  I'm also trying to give them an inner sense of satisfaction in that they are contributing to the peace of our home and helping to create Zion.  They don't really care about that though.  I'm also trying to show them the practical side of doing their work daily (and cheerfully) - they have more free time!  It took them 15 minutes today to pick up the play room, dust everything including the cleaning fan, and vacuum.  It used to take an hour or two.  They sort of get this, but it's still not enough for them.

I'm wondering if you all have any great ideas on how to reward, motivate, encourage, etc in meaningful ways.  Things that will teach, not just provide a temporary happiness.  Ways to find the deeper meaning in work and service and order.

August 29, 2010


My internet friends and I have been having an interesting discussion on education and religion and how to mix the two lately.  In an effort to learn more about effectively teaching my children I've been reading a variety of wonderful articles.  The one I'd like to highlight today is from Julie Beck, the president of the Relief Society (the women's organization in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints).  You can read the talk here.

She introduces a way to prioritize your time and energy which I thought very profound and one that applies to all women, no matter their religious preference.

First, think of those things which are ESSENTIAL.  The things you need to do in order to be saved (whatever your definition of saved is).  Add to this the things you need to do in order to have your family be saved.  For my family it would look something like this - personal and family prayer and scripture study, attend my church meetings, live so I am directed by the Spirit that I may understand the will of the Lord.

Then add those things which are NECESSARY.  Cooking meals, cleaning the home, creating an environment where the Spirit would be welcome.  Learning skills of self-reliance and teaching my children (because I homeschool, that is a necessary here!)

The last category is NICE TO DO.  Reading a novel, going to lunch with friends, attending a movie and so on.

I still need to sit down and seriously work through my lists and what goes in each category but it is helping me to see what is truly important and what I can let go without guilt.  If it's not ESSENTIAL or NECESSARY then truly I do not need to worry.  Or lay in bed all night worrying that I didn't do enough or that I'm messing up everyone's lives.

August 27, 2010

Prepared Dictation

We're about to embark on the Prepared Dictation voyage. Here's how it works....

at about age 9 or 10 you have your child do prepared dictation once a week. They will look at a passage, paying special attention to how words are spelled. After a bit they close their eyes to see if they can remember how the words look. If they can't, they look again at the passage and try to "take a picture" of the words. It might help to trace the word on the table with their finger or to spell it out loud. After they are sure they know how to spell the words, ask them to look at the punctuation and capitalization. When they've had enough time to do this, you will begin the dictation.

Read the passage slowly, stopping after a few words so that the child can write easily. As they get older you'll be able to read longer passages, but at first keep it shorter. If they make a mistake immediately cover it up (Post-its work well for that) and have them continue. When they have completed the passage have them correct the mistake either on top of the Post-it or YOU erase it and have them respell it. You don't want them to look at the misspelled word because then their brain takes a "picture" of it and they have a hard time remembering the correct way to spell it. If you do this casually and without criticism the child won't feel 'bad' about getting things wrong.

I have prepared a "book" to help me do this. At first the dictation passages are short and in large print so the boys will have an easier time studying them. As they move further along the path, the passages become longer and the font reduces to more normal sizes. I've chosen to include several passages per page merely for the purpose of saving ink and paper. I intend to cover up the passages they are not working on so they don't get confused. I have noticed that many dictation books have one passage per page, but I was trying to be frugal here.  I have done my best to make sure paragraphs or quotes remain o n the same page.  For example, the beginning of the Declaration of Independence is several paragraphs long.  Two or three fit on a page, then I pushed the next paragraph to a new page so it would not be divided.  You can choose to have your kids do one paragraph at a time, or learn the whole thing (for older kids).

You could also use these lists for copywork. I have! I print them up and cut them out and stick them in my Copywork Jars. Every day the boys take out one or two strips of paper and copy them into their books. I'll post the other pages I've made for the Jars soon.

These lists would also make a great memorization tool.

One thing I want to do with dictation is to create a meaningful book of scripture, advice and encouragement. I've tried to keep all the quotes uplifting and worthwhile so that (hopefully) they will look back over this in years to come and find peace and guidance in the words.

I have prepared one file for with verses from the King James version of the Bible, with other quotes, etc and one for those who are LDS (Mormon).

August 23, 2010

Master Grocery List

Here is my master grocery list in PDF And here is one in Word. It is arranged how MY store is arranged, making it easier for me to find everything.   You can change the Word one around to fit how your favorite store is arranged. Note - some things I buy in bulk from a natural foods co-op in my area so they are not on this grocery list (things like oatmeal, brown rice, craisins, etc).

I just take my menu and recipes (which are in a binder now) and mark what I need - it takes about 5 minutes.  I wanted to make pre-printed grocery lists for each week, but life happens and sometimes I don't get to the store on shopping day or I already have the ingredients on hand, or we have a birthday that week and they want something different.  Pre-printed meant I'd have to go through and figure out what I DIDN'T need and cross that off.  Too hard for me!!!

August 21, 2010

Favorite Quotes

While I have been using a Charlotte Mason style education for 5 years now, I haven't (cough, cough) read her actual works. I've been busy!!!! But I'm taking the time to read them now...and it will take a while....

I'm going to be adding my favorite quotes from her books, mainly as a way for me to consolidate all the gems into one area. I won't be creating new posts each time; I'll just add on to this one. And I probably won't keep it strictly Charlotte Mason. It will probably morph into other thoughts, quotes and ideas as relates to education. My own personal page to inspire and uplift.

So if you're interested, bookmark this and check back often as it is a work in progess.

From Home Education (Book One) by Charlotte Mason

Children are thinking, feeling human beings, with spirits to be kindled and not vessels to be filled.

All children are entitled to a liberal education based upon good literature and the arts.

Liberal meaning, taking whatsover things are true, honest, and of good report, and offering no limitation or hinderance saver where excess should injure.

Education is an atmosphere - take into account the educational value of his natural home environment and let him live freely among his proper conditions.

Education is a discipline - the discipline of habits formed definitely and thoughtfully.

Education is a life - the need of intellectual and moral as well as of physical sustenance is implied. The mind feeds on ideas and therefore children should have a generous curriculum.

Education is a science of relations - the child has natural relations with a vast number of things and thoughts; so we must train him upon physical exercises, nature, handicrafts, science and art, and upon many living books.

We should allow no separation to grow up between the intellectual and the spiritual life of children.

Do not let the children pass a day without distinct efforts, intellectual, moral, and volitional; let them brace themselves to understand; let them compel themselves to do and to bear; and let them do right at sacrifice of ease and pleasure.

The morning, after breakfast, is much the best time for lessons and every sort of mental work; if the whole afternoon cannot be spared for out-of-door recreation, that is the time for mechanical tasks such as needlework, drawing and practising.

The brain, or some portion of the brain, becomes exhausted with any given function has been exercised too long. The child has been doing sums for some time, and is getting unaccountably stupid: take away his slate and let him read history, and you find his wits fresh again.

Give the brain of the child variety of work.

No pains should be spared to make the hours of meeting round the family table the brightest hours of the day...Here is the parents' opportunity to train them in manners and in morals, to cement family love...

The whole house should be kept light and bright...indoor airings...ventilation of rooms

Intellectual, moral, even spiritual life and progress depend greatly upon physical conditions.

Never be within doors when you can rightly be can be served outdoors...every hour spent outside is a clear gain.

Of the evils of modern education few are worse than this - that the perpetual cackle of his elders leaves the poor child not a moment of time, nor an inch of space, wherein to wonder - and grow.

When outside...they must be let is not the mother's job to entertain the little people...first send the children to let off their spirits in a wild scamper...then send them off on an exploring expedition.

Get the children to look well at some patch of landscape, and then to shut their eyes and call up the picture before them.

Children should know field crops, flowers, trees, the seasons. Mothers and teachers should know about nature.

Nature drawings should be left to his own initiative. Do not instruct 'this is how we do this' or 'that is how it should be done.'

Children should be encouraged to watch, patiently and quietly, until they learn something of the habits and history of bee, ant, wasp, spider, hairy caterpillar, dragon-fly, and whatever of larger growth comes in their way.

Every child has a natural interest in the living things about him which it is the business of his parents to encourage; for, but few children are equal to holding their own in the face of public opinion; and if they see that the things which interest them are indifferent or disgusting to you, their pleasure in them vanishes.

An observant child should be put in the way of things worth observing.

It is infinitely well worth the mother's while to take some pains every day to secure, in the first place, that her children spend hours daily amongst the rural and natural infuse into them...a love of investigation.

Other inspirational education quotes

Education is not the filling of a bucket, but the lighting of a fire. - William Butler Yeats

Son this is history. It’s our history. Some of it is painful, some of it is beautiful, but it is who we are. - Jason F. Wright

A man should hear a little music, read a little poetry, and see a fine picture every day of his life, in order that worldly cares may not obliterate the sense of the beautiful which God has implanted in the human soul. — Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

If we continue to send our children to Caesar for their education, we need to stop being surprised when they come home as Romans. ~ Dr. Voddie Baucham

Too often we give children answers to remember rather than problems to solve. - Roger Lewin

I never teach my pupils; I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn. - Albert Einstein

There are two types of education… One should teach us how to make a living…and the other, how to live. - John Adams

The idea is to educate, not follow anyone’s schedule about when something should be studied. - Ray Drouillard

I believe it would be much better for everyone if children were given their start in education at home. No one understands a child as well as his mother, and children are so different that they need individual training and study. A teacher with a room full of pupils cannot do this. At home, too, they are in their mother's care. She can keep them from learning immoral things from other children. - Laura Ingalls Wilder

I have never let my schooling interfere with my education. --Mark Twain

I still say the only education worth anything is self-education. - Robert Frost

He is educated who knows how to find out what he doesn't know. - George Simmel

I learned most, not from those who taught me but from those who talked with me. - St. Augustine

Sitting together in the Big Creek auditorium at lunch, we taught ourselves trigonometry.  I had discovered that learning something, no matter how complex, wasn't hard when I had a reason to want to know it. - Homer H. Hickam, Jr.

August 16, 2010

Our favorite math games

We use RightStart math and love it. It is a wonderful curriculum that incorporates many games, fun games, fun MATH games.  My kids enjoy playing them and don't realize they are learning....cue evil laughter.  If you don't use RightStart, but want to play more math games,  they have a book of just games (Math Card Games) I would recommend you purchase it as it has fantastic games that I won't describe here.  You can also purchase the "kit" which has the book and the cards needed to play.

We also enjoy these math games:

1.  Money Bags - I hadn't taught "money" to my 6-yr-old when we started playing this, but he can play easily now. We played this today and I totally lost...even the 4-yr-old beat me and he spent most of the time knocking other people's "guys" off the board and stealing money from the bank.

2.  Sum Swamp - a great game to practice addition and subtraction.  The 6-yr-old can play and so can the 4-yr-old with some help.  My 10 and 9 year olds are almost too old for this, but they still want in on the action.

3.  4-Way Countdown - you can add, subtract, multiply or divide so it works well for kids of all ages.  My only complaint is that it has only 4 players.  Sometimes I want to play too (okay, all the time) and with 4 kids I'm always the odd man out.

4.  War - yes, good old war.  We play it many different ways.  When they are little it's the traditional "highest" card wins.  Or lowest card.  We also do addition war where you play two cards and add them up; the highest total wins.  Or subtraction war; play 2 cards and lowest score wins.  We typically use the number cards from RightStart because they go from 0 to 10 and I don't have to try to explain queens, kings and jacks, but you can play with whatever you have.

I've thought about getting Presto Change-O.  Any other games I should check out????

August 9, 2010

Two fantastic (and free) resources

I was SO excited to find these and thought I should pass them on.

First, is My Audio School. It has a lot of wonderful, living books all neatly organized. You can access about 25% of it for free, the rest you need to pay $14.99 per year. I am trying out all the free stuff before I decide on a subscription.

Second, is Sqool Tube. This site contains many, many, many excellent videos. Think Bill Nye, Magic School Bus, Schoolhouse Rock, etc. Most of these I can't find at my library and buying them is too expensive (Bill Nye DVDs are $50 each!!!). But these are FREE! They have history, math, science, and many more. I hope this site never goes away. Ever. And I hope they keep adding to it. Wait, hold the presses....I just clicked around on some of their other links and they have a lot of books you can view online (or links to books you can read). Yippee! It will take me a while to explore everything.

August 8, 2010

Composer Study

I briefly hit on how we do composer study earlier, but thought I'd expound on it and give you my list. We are trying to study them chronologically, more or less. We read a short bio, usually from the Mike Venezia series. If he doesn't have a book we try to find some other children's picture book. When they are older we'll use The Gift of Music and The Spiritual Lives of the Great Composers.

We listen to the Classics for Kids presentation and then to various other pieces by the composer. My husband has a rather extensive collection of classical music so I have a lot available. What I can't find we search the internet. We also watch YouTube clips now and then to see the people actually performing the work.

We will also do a study of a few "types" of music including opera, ballet, the orchestra, broadway, Jazz/Big Band and classical guitar.

For opera we will use:
Sing Me a Story - Jane Rosenburg
Bravo! Brava!: A Night at the Opera - Anne Siberell
The Hamster Opera Company - Janis Mitchell

For ballet we will use:
A Child's Introduction to Ballet - Laura Lee
Illustrated Book of Ballet Stories - Barbara Newman
Dance Me a Story - Jane Rosenburg
The Hamster Ballet Company - Janis Mitchell

For the orchestra we will use:
Story of the Orchestra - Robert Levine
Zin! Zin! Zin! A Violin - Lloyd Moss
whatever books we can find by Anna Harwell Celenza

For broadway we'll read The Great American Mousical by Julie Andrews, then listen to and watch a few musicals.

For jazz/big band/rag time we'll watch some video clips on YouTube and listen to some CDs.  My husband is a huge fan of this music so he'll be teaching more about it than I will.

And here are the men we'll be studying:

Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
Cristoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787)
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827)
Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840)
Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)
Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868)
Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848)
Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835)
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
Charles Gounod (1818-1892)
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)
Robert Schumann (1810-1856)
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
Johann Strauss II (1825-1899)
Alexander Borodin (1833-1887)
Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)
Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881)
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908)
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
Guiseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
Richard Wagner(1813-1883)
Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880)
Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884)
Leo Delibes (1836-1891)
Camille Saint-Saens (1835-1921)
Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)
Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904)
Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)
Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)
Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953)
Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975)
Sergei Rachmaninov (1873-1943)
Bela Bartok (1881-1945)
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990)

August 5, 2010

Artist Study

Below is the list of artists we might study over the years. We try to read a short biography then we study one picture a week, for about 6 weeks.  I love the Mike Venezia Getting to Know the World's Greatest Artist series.  If he doesn't have a book about a particular artist I check the library or Amazon for suggestions.  If all else fails I hit Wikipedia.

I used to worry about matching the artist with the historical time period we were studying, but it became too stressful and I felt like I was being ruled by the schedule instead of enjoying the process of learning.  We now study whoever, whenever, and the kids make the connections themselves.  We do add them to a timeline/Book of Centuries so they get a good feel for when the artist lived.

I print out pictures from a yahoo group at Ambleside Online.  They are nicely formatted with the title included.  Simply Charlotte Mason has some beautiful artist study portfolios as well. If we study an artist they don't have pictures for then I try to find a calendar or book, or print something from the internet.  We have an easel and picture frame where we display the picture (or book or calendar).  Each week we switch the picture for  new one.  The pictures are then stored in a 3-ring binder, in page protectors, so we can look back through them (and use them next time around).  Basically, we are creating our own art book (with mom-approved pictures).

Simply Charlotte Mason has an excellent description of how to "look" at the pictures for artist study here.

Giotto di Bondone (1266 - 1337)
Jan Van Eyck (1395 - 1441)
Fra Angelico (1395 - 1445)
Sandro Botticelli (1445 - 1510)
Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519)
Albrecht Durer (1471 - 1528)
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 - 1564)
Raphael Sanzio (1483 - 1520)
Titian (1485 - 1576)
Pieter Breugel the Elder (1525 - 1569)
El Greco (1541 - 1614)
Caravaggio (1571 - 1610)
Peter Paul Rubens (1577 - 1640)
Frans Hals (1580 - 1666)
Diego Velasquez (1599 - 1660; read I, Juan de Pareja)
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606 - 1669)
Jacob van Ruisdael (1628 - 1682)
Pieter De Hootch (1629 - 1684)
Johannes (or Jan) Vermeer (1632 - 1675)
Jean Honore Fragonard (1732 - 1806)
Benjamin West (1738 - 1820)
John Singleton Copley (1738 - 1815)
Francisco Goya (1746 - 1828)
Jacques-Louis David (1748 - 1825)
Caspar David Friedrich (1774 - 1840)
Gilbert Stuart (1755 - 1828)
JMW Turner (1775 - 1851)
Constable (1776 - 1837)
John James Audubon (1785 - 1851)
Camille Corot (1796 - 1875)
Eugene Delacroix (1798 - 1863)
George Caleb Bingham (1811 - 1879)
Hudson River Artists
          Thomas Cole (1801 - 1848)
          Frederick Edwin Church (1826 - 1900)
          Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823 - 1900)
          Asher Durand (1796 - 1886)
Jean Francois Millet (1814 - 1875)
Gustave Courbet (1819 - 1877)
Rosa Bonheur (1822 - 1899)
George Inness (1825 - 1894)
Albert Bierstadt (1830 - 1902)
Camille Pissarro (1830 - 1903)
Edouard Manet (1832 - 1883)
Edgar Degas (1834 - 1917)
James Whistler (1834 - 1903)
Winslow Homer (1836 - 1910)
Paul Cezanne (1839 - 1906)
Claude Monet (1840 - 1926)
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841 - 1919)
Mary Cassatt (1844 - 1926)
Paul Gauguin (1848 - 1903)
John William Waterhouse (1849 - 1917)
Vincent van Gogh (1853 - 1890)
John Singer Sargent (1856 - 1925)
Georges Seurat (1859 - 1891)
Grandma Moses (1860 - 1961)
Frederic Remington (1861 - 1909)
Henri Matisse (1869 - 1954)
Maxfield Parrish (1870 - 1966)
Paul Klee (1879 - 1940)
Pablo Picasso (1881 - 1973)
N.C. Wyeth (1882 - 1945)
Edward Hopper (1882 - 1967)
Diego Rivera (1886 - 1957)
Georgia O’Keeffe (1887 - 1986)
Marc Chagall (1887 - 1985)
Horace Pippin (1888 - 1946)
Minerva Reichert (1888 - 1976)
Grant Wood (1891 - 1942)
Norman Rockwell (1894 - 1978)
Dorothea Lange (1895 - 1965)
Rene Magritte (1898 - 1967)
Alexander Calder (1898 - 1976)
MC Escher (1898 - 1972)
Ansel Adams (1902 - 1984)
Salvador Dali (1904 - 1989)
Frida Kahlo (1907 - 1954)
Jackson Pollock (1912 - 1956)
Arnold Friberg (1913 - 2010)
Jacob Lawrence (1917 - 2000)
Roy Lichtenstein (1923 - 1997)
Andy Warhol (1928 - 1987)
Faith Ringgold (1930 - )
P. Buckley Moss (1933 - )
James Christensen (1942 - )
Del Parson (1948 - )
Christian Riese Lassen (1949 - )
Frans Lanting (1951 - )
Liz Lemon Swindle (1953 - )
Thomas Kinkade (1958 - 2012)
Greg Olsen (1958 - )
Simon Dewey (1962 - )

Did I miss any of your favorites?  

August 1, 2010

What are we doing this year?

Who knows?  Well, I do.  Mostly.  Here's what I do know....and for reference the boys are ages 10, 9, 6 and 4 (although the 4-yr-old doesn't do anything structured).

Math:  Everyone will continue with RightStart Math.  We are loving it.

Science:  We are finishing up Apologia Astronomy and will do chemistry next.  Our main spines will by Real Science 4 Kids Pre-level 1 and Level 1 and well as The Elements by Ellen McHenry.  We may or may not do Carbon Chemistry after that.  We will be using many of the books and videos from this list.  When we're done with chemistry we'll pick something else.  We usually don't decide until about 3 weeks before we're done with the last topic.

History:  We just fought the battle at Bunker Hill and are moving on from there, using this list.  We may or may not finish American History this 'school year'.  From American History we will move to Modern World History.

Reading:  My younger son is using the Now I'm Reading series by Nora Gaydos along with Happy Phonics and the Explode the Code books.  The older boys do their Explode the Code books - one son decided to do 10 pages a week, the other wants to do 5.  One boy (the 10-yr old) reads to me from a book of his choice, the 9-yr-old reads on his own (he's always reading so I don't worry much about him anymore).

Handwriting:  Younger son is using Handwriting Without Tears.  Older boys do copywork.  They have made a goal to do 2 copywork pieces a day (they choose from our copywork jars).  One son has opted to learn cursive so he is doing some practice lines every day.

Spelling:  The older boys will continue in All About Spelling.  Younger boy will start in the next few months.

Grammar:  The older two made a goal to do 3 lessons a week in Growing With Grammar.  My younger son doesn't do grammar yet.  We all do Mad Libs though.  That counts, right?

Read-alouds:  We are working our way through two different lists.  One is for the younger boys (although the older boys listen all the time), the other is geared towards the older boys, but the younger boys listen in too.

Geography:  I still haven't figured out how to work this into the day/week.  We do map drills on Friday, but.....I'm still working on it.  We tend to get really caught up in an area and our other work doesn't get done.  I've been thinking about going to a 6 week schedule where we'd work for 6 weeks then take one week "off", but that week would be devoted to geography.  I have Galloping the Globe, which I want to use, I'm just trying to figure out how to add in one more major subject without going crazy.

Artist:  We just finished da Vinci and will study as many of these guys as we can this year - Rembrandt Van Rijn, Botticelli (maybe), Caspar David Friedrich, van Gogh, Raphael, John Singer Sargent, and Claude Monet.  We use the Mike Venezia series Getting to Know the World's Greatest Artists and display the picture we're studying for a week or two.

Composer:  Just finished Handel and will work on Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, Schubert, Beethoven and Paganini this year.  We use the Mike Venezia series about composers for this, listen to the programs on Classics for Kids and listen to music during lunch.

As always, reviews for the various books we read will be available at Goodreads (see the button on the right).  I will also update the booklists after we finish a subject - I'll show what we liked, what we didn't, what we'll never use again and what we might try to find next time through.